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Opinion / Viewpoint

‘Frozen’ offers glimpse of autism in girls

by  /  15 September 2015
The Expert:

I’ve probably seen the movie “Frozen” at least a dozen times. Like children enthralled with this variation on the classic tale “The Snow Queen,” I never tire of the story, the music or the enchanting characters. Among them all, it is Elsa who seems to capture the imagination of every little girl (and many boys too, even if they aren’t so quick to admit this).

At first I couldn’t understand why Elsa won the most hearts. After all, her sister, Anna, is the warm, charming, spunky and brave heroine of the story. But then, after seeing the film a few more times, I realized what makes Elsa so special: She is the poster child for girls with autism.

Connecting matters: Helen Tager-Flusberg links autism science to societyIllustration by Ivan Canu

Connecting matters: Helen Tager-Flusberg links autism science to society
Illustration by Ivan Canu

Pinning an autism diagnosis on a Disney heroine may seem audacious, but Elsa displays a lot of traits reminiscent of those that clinicians and researchers have highlighted among girls with autism. As a model, Elsa can provide us with some clues about how autism is expressed in girls.

From the time she is a young girl, Elsa is less socially engaged and communicative than Anna. Although Elsa doesn’t speak much, she sings beautifully — like several girls with autism that I have known.

Around the time that she accidentally injures her little sister, Elsa virtually stops communicating and playing altogether. And when her parents die, she doesn’t realize how much her younger sister needs her — not considering Anna’s thoughts and feelings even though she loves her.

Elsa’s social impairments reign at her coronation, where she remains distant from guests and refuses to dance with her many admirers. As her responsibilities as queen and Anna’s guardian mount, Elsa experiences so much anxiety and sensory overload that she brings on a severe winter in the kingdom of Arendelle with her magical powers. That’s when she runs away to create a castle of ice on the distant cliffs.

Elsa’s symptoms in the behavioral and sensory domains are also obvious. She has magical powers (akin to savant skills) that are sparked by her touch, which turns everything to ice — a symbolic reference to epilepsy, perhaps, as the patterns of ice resemble spikes of electrical activity. She wears gloves to ease her sensory hypersensitivity, just as some people with autism wear certain fabrics that are less likely to irritate them.

We also see hints of Elsa’s anxiety, so common in autism: her fears about her magical powers, her reluctance to be in the limelight as queen and her desire to “let it go.” Toward the end, we also see her anxiety as Anna falls into a deep coma.

Emulating Elsa:

Characterizing autism in girls is important for answering several key questions. For example, why does autism appear to be so much rarer in girls? Do girls have factors that protect them from autism risk? Or are girls better than boys at masking their symptoms — say, by tending to copy certain behaviors as a way of trying to fit in socially? Such tendencies, if they exist, might mean that we are just not as good at spotting symptoms in girls.

Once I realized that Elsa would fulfill anyone’s definition of autism, the mystery was why no one else had noticed it. Of course, it is because we don’t think of princesses or queens as having autism. When we think about autism, we rarely picture girls or women who are accomplished and beautiful.

Last Halloween, Disney sold millions of Elsa costumes to little girls in this country and around the world. If the costumes sold are any indication, so many more girls wanted to be Elsa than Anna, who, given her loveable character and courage, should have been the more popular princess.

I would love to believe that as they wear Elsa’s gown, emulate her actions and sing her songs, these girls are learning to admire and embrace a star with autism. In turn, they will become more compassionate and understanding of differences.

Maybe little girls love Elsa precisely for her distinctive traits. Or maybe it is just the beautiful dresses she wears.

Helen Tager-Flusberg is professor of psychological and brain sciences at Boston University, where she directs the Center for Autism Research Excellence.

TAGS:   anxiety, arts, autism, empathy, gender

15 responses to “‘Frozen’ offers glimpse of autism in girls”

  1. Planet Autism says:

    “For example, why does autism appear to be so much rarer in girls?”

    It’s not – and you are perpetuating a very tired myth is suggesting that it is. Even Tony Attwood is now saying what I have long believed, that the gender ratio is 50:50.

    I think your analogy is a huge stretch. Elsa is afraid of her power because it is so dangerous (it harmed her sister who almost died), so it’s not that she doesn’t realise how her sister feels when she distances herself, it’s that the fear of the power she has causing more damage – she is protecting her sister. The fact that she is sad I would say in fact shows that she does realise how her sister feels. Even at the coronation dance, she stiffens and becomes apparently cold, due to fear of her power. None of that is because she doesn’t communicate well or realise, it’s because she is protecting everyone – which shows great empathy.

    My analysis, is also despite my own Asperger’s!

  2. Lindsay Ryan says:

    Thank you for sharing your thoughts on how Elsa has Autistic traits. Several women and girls I’ve worked with have made the Elsa/Autism connection. They also point out she may be having to hide her sexuality, which could be causing her anxiety. Either way it is great to see young women inspired by her story,

    • Planet Autism says:

      Although I would bet the vast majority wouldn’t make that connection. There are two of us on this comment thread already refuting it.

  3. LC says:

    I am sorry, but this is such a huge stretch. Elsa is not Autistic. Her problems stem from fear. She was born with powers yes. But she isolated herself because of poor parenting choices which were made in fear. Fear of Elsa and her powers. Her parents first isolated her, then because she carries around so much guilt and fear of herself she isolates herself physically and emotionally. Plain and simple. those are two different things. I know, I am Autistic. This is the most ridiculous thing I have read. She is no star with autism. I am sorry. I find your analysis completely unrelated and actually hurtful.

  4. Frank L. Ludwig says:

    I totally agree, and I think her magical powers are the equivalent of the highly individualised abilities of autistics which are in most cases ignored or suppressed. And even if they are allowed to develop, these abilities are so individual that the child has to figure them out for themselves because there is nobody who could give them advice.

  5. Lauren says:

    Interesting take on the film! It’s fun to see different people’s interpretations of art.

  6. bbdrvr says:

    I made the same connection, and I know of others who have as well. I think the objections in the comments are perhaps missing the important issue, which is not whether a fictional character is actually autistic (I seriously doubt that the writers had that in mind when they wrote the script), but whether her story is one that many autistic girls can easily relate to. I think that’s very much the case.

  7. Crysta says:

    If anything I would put Anna as the one with Autism (high functioning)

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